Friday, May 22, 2020

Steric Number Definition in Chemistry

The steric number is the number of atoms bonded to a central atom of a molecule plus the number of lone pairs attached to the central atom. The steric number of a molecule is used in VSEPRÂ  (valence shell electron pair repulsion) theory to determine the molecular geometry of a molecule. How to Find the Steric Number To determine the steric number, you use the Lewis structure. The steric number gives the electron-pair arrangement for the geometry that maximizes the distance between valence electron pairs. When the distance between valence electrons is maximized, the energy of the molecule is at its lowest state and the molecule is in its most stable configuration. The steric number is calculated using the following formula: Steric Number (number of lone electron pairs on the central atom) (number of atoms bonded to the central atom) Heres a handy table that gives the bond angle that maximizes separation between electrons and gives the associated hybrid orbital. Its a good idea to learn the bond angle and orbitals since these appear on many standardized exams. S# bond angle hybrid orbital 4 109.5Â ° sp3 hybrid orbital (4 total orbitals) 3 120Â ° sp2 hybrid orbitals (3 total orbitals) 2 180Â ° sp hybrid orbitals (2 total orbitals) 1 no angle s orbital (hydrogen has an S# of 1) Steric Number and Hybrid Orbital Steric Number Calculation Examples Methane (CH4) - Methane consists of carbon bonded to 4 hydrogen atoms and 0 lone pairs. Steric number 4.Water (H2O) - Water has two hydrogen atoms bonded to oxygen and also 2 lone pairs, so its steric number is 4.Ammonia (NH3) - Ammonia also has a steric number of 4 because it has 3 hydrogen atoms bonded to nitrogen and 1 lone electron pair.Ethylene (C2H4) - Ethylene has 3 bonded atoms and no lone pairs. Note the carbon double bond. Steric number 3.Acetylene (C2H2) - The carbons are bonded by a triple bond. There are 2 bonded atoms and no lone pairs. Steric number 2.Carbon Dioxide (CO2) - Carbon dioxide is an example of a compound that contains 2 sets of double bonds. There are 2 oxygen atoms bonded to carbon, with no lone pairs, so the steric number is 2. Shape Versus Steric Number Another way to look at molecular geometry is to assign the shape of the molecule according to steric number: SN 2 is linear SN 3 is trigonal planar SN 4 is tetrahedral SN 5 is trigonal bipyramidal SN 6 is octahedral Key Takeaways for Steric Number In chemistry, a molecules steric number is the number of atoms bonded to the central atom plus the number of lone electron pairs surrounding the central atom.The steric number is used in VSEPR theory to predict molecular geometry.

Friday, May 8, 2020

The Effects Of Media Violence On Children - 1943 Words

For many years now, the media has been a big part of our lives. Almost everybody in the world is or has connected to it one way or another. It is a way for families and friends to have fun together, for interesting topics that people are interested in, or to just enjoy alone. However, there is a problem that can be seen across all types of media: violence. Violence can be seen as a distraught way to get over problems. There is judgement issues involved for violence. It is done by bullies in school, adults at a bar, gangs on the streets, but there is no greater effect on children, pertaining to violence, than the media. It is very destructive and could harm the youth in a mental way. Children are exposed to massive amounts of depictions of violence in many forms of media, and have become desensitized and more aggressive; therefore an effort should be made to teach children about empathy. Media can be traced back to ancient times with literature, but more advanced types of media emerg ed within the nineteenth and twentieth century. This includes the invention of movies and television. Going more along the timeline, the invention and rising popularity of video games in the 1970s and 1980s is seen as well. Violence has been included in all of these media forms, whether it be mild or severe. â€Å"For more than five decades, Americans have been concerned about the frequent depiction of violence in the mass media and the harm these portrayals might do to the youth† (AndersonShow MoreRelatedThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children873 Words   |  4 Pages According to the Media Education Foundation, once a child reaches eighteen years of age, they have witnessed around 200,000 acts of violence and 16,000 murders ( Our society loves entertainment and a grand portion of this entertainment contains violence. Children constantly consume violent visuals, due to their prevalence. Majority of our society is uninterested in the effects of media viol ence since its effects do not show immediately. Misinformation is our greatest enemy in theRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children974 Words   |  4 Pagesmany kinds of media, like Internet, video game, television and film. It is generally believed that some of the bad information such as violent content in the media can have a negative effect on people, and it can end up causing some social problem. It is clear that children are more likely to be influenced by media violence than other age groups because of their world outlook and personality are not formed. Furthermore is if media violence does have some profound influence on children, this will leadRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children884 Words   |  4 Pagesis all this necessary to fabricate in the media? What are characters in movies teaching kids? What about the language in music talking about killing people and talking about violence like it’s the cool thing? What about new channels always ta lking about guns, bombs and threats to the public, is this what is influencing are children because they view it as a norm? Some may agree with this as others may disagree. Media violence is not the factor in violence today. Studies show that over 90% of homesRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1357 Words   |  6 Pagesthe graphic cruelty and violence. According to American Psychological Association, the harmful influence of media violence on children dates back to the 1950s and 1960s, and remains strong today. A child that watches violence or hears about violence can be influenced to become violent. Indeed, in reviewing the totality of empirical evidence regarding the impact of media violence, the conclusion that exposure to violent portrayals poses a risk of harmful effects on children has been reached by theRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children2411 Words   |  10 PagesMedia Violence is definitely harmful to children as the exposure of media violence can desensitize children (age 6-12) to violence and in the real world; violence becomes enjoyable and does not result in apprehensiveness in the child. There have been s everal studies and experiments regarding the adverse effects of violence used in video games, television, as well as movies. With both preschool and school-aged children, studies have found that they are more likely to imitate the violence they seeRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children2122 Words   |  9 Pagesexposed to various types of media, for example books or magazines, television, song lyrics, video games, and movies. Media often portrays, aggressive action, behaviour, and violence. This content can negatively affect not only adolescents and adults, but can have an even greater effect on children even from the moment they are exposed to it. Children who are exposed to violence in the media may display aggressive and violent behaviour. Young people especially children under the age of eight thisRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1903 Words   |  8 Pagesdepict different forms of violence. Some people feel that there is too much violence exposed in the media. Many studies have made the claim that the media is responsible for much of the violence seen in the world we live in. However, people have choices and responsibilities we cannot allow ourselves to blame it on other things such as the media. The violence seen in our media has an impact on both adults and children. Since children are also exposed to various forms of media, there has been additionalRead MoreEffects of Media Violence on Children2430 Words   |  10 PagesThe Effect of Media Violence on Children and Levels of Aggression. It has been said that children are like sponges when it comes to attaining knowledge. This seems to be true whether they are learning to speak or how to show emotion. Feelings and emotions become more imminent once children begin to go through adolescents. Children acquire the ability to aggression, sadness, and happiness more readily. Males typically exhibit higher levels of aggression then females according to some researchRead MoreThe Effects Of Media Violence On Children1270 Words   |  6 Pagesdifferent forms of violence. Some people feel that there is too much violence exposed in the media. Many studies have made the claim that the media is responsible for much of the violence seen in the world we live in (List and Wolfgang). However, people have choices and responsibilities we cannot allow ourselves to blame it on other things such as the media. The violence seen in our media has an impact on both adults and children. Since children are also exposed to various forms of media, there has beenRead MoreWhat Is the Effect of Media Violence on Children1314 Words   |  6 PagesYasser Abdelaziz Ms. Williams English 1010-18 13, December 2010 The Effect of Media Violence on Children Although very little research was done on it in the past, media violence has sparked much controversy in recent history. As technology becomes more advanced, new methods of uncovering the media’s effects on children have emerged. Advances in Neuroscience, for example, can become tools to understanding the effects media violence has from a psychological standpoint. The brain in its underpinnings

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Interaction Between Heredity and Environment Free Essays

Have you ever wondered why people resemble their parents? The answer to this and other questions about inheritance lies in a specialized branch of biology called genetics. Geneticist found that most aspects of life have a hereditary basis and that many traits can appear in more than one form. For instance, human beings have blond, or red, or brown, or black hair. We will write a custom essay sample on The Interaction Between Heredity and Environment or any similar topic only for you Order Now They may have one of several different types of blood, one or several colors of skin. Their ear lobes may be attached or free. They may or may not be able to manufacture certain enzymes. Some of these traits are much more important to the life of the individual than others, but all of them are hereditary. The geneticist is interested not only in the traits of man but in those of all other organisms as well. The study of inheritance depends on the differences as well as the similarities between parents and offspring over several generations. Heredity is very complex, and a geneticist cannot possibly analyze all the traits of an organism at once. Instead, he studies only a few traits at a time. Many other traits are present. As the geneticists work out the solution to each hereditary mystery, the geneticist must not forget that all organisms live in a complex environment. The environment may affect the degree to which a hereditary trait develops. The geneticist must try to find out which of the many parts of the environment may affect his results. The factors must be kept as constant as possible by using controlled experiments. Only then can he tell that the differences observed are due to heredity. Heredity determines what an organism may become, not what it will become. What an organism becomes depends on both its heredity and environment. The modern science of genetics started with the work of Gregor Mendel. He found that a certain factor in a plant cell determined the traits the plant would have. Thirty years after his discovery this determines was given the name gene. Of the traits Mendel studied, he called dominant those at showed up in the offspring and recessive those The question I will ask is: how much of the variability observed between different individuals is due to hereditary differences between them, and how much to differences in the environments under which the individuals developed? In most organisms, including man, genetics information is transmitted from mother to daughter cells and from one generation to the next by deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Knowledge of the heredity or inheritance of plants and animals is important in many phases of our life. The question I will ask is: How much of the variability observed between different individuals is due to hereditary differences between them, and how much to differences in the environments under which the individuals developed? The purpose of designing a unit on ? Heredity And Environment? is to help students learn more about themselves. They will learn why they develop into the kind of individual they are. The unit will discuss heredity traits and environmental conditions, chromosomes, DNA, studies of identical twins, and several diseases linked to heredity and environment. The students will do some hands on activities by constructing a model which represents DNA. They will explore plants with the exact same heredity and plants with different heredity. They will change the conditions in the environment to see the way the plant organisms with the same heredity may develop differently in different environments and why organisms with different heredity develop in the matter in which they do. Heredity is not the only thing that effects development. The environment also has an important effect. The unit can be taught to students in grades five through eight. The science and math teachers are encouraged to use a team teaching approach. Other features that will be included in the unit are content, lesson plans, resources, reading list and a bibliography. Genes and DNA DNA, short for deoxyribonucleic acid, makes up the genes that transmits hereditary traits. The DNA molecule looks like a long, twisted rope ladder. This is called the double helix. The ladder is made up of two coiled strands with rungs between them. The rungs are composed of pairs of chemicals in different combinations. Each combination carries instructions like the dot and dashes of the Morse Code. Each gene in the body is a DNA section with full set of instructions for guiding the formation of just one particular protein. The different proteins made by the genes direct the body? functions throughout a person? s life. DNA is made of six parts: a sugar, a mineral (phosphate), and four special chemicals called bases. These bases are represented as A;T;C; and G. Sugar and phosphate form the chains, or sides, of the staircase. The A;G;C and T bases form the steps. See figure 1. Each step is made of two pieces, which are always paired the same way. The A base always pairs w ith the T base. And the G base always pairs with the C base. Figure 1. DNA Structure (figure available in print form) DNA Reproduces Itself Two new identical DNAs are immediately formed. The A,G,C, and T bases on each chain attract loose bases found floating within the nucleus. Ts attract As and Cs attract Gs. The two new DNAs are just like the original DNA. Each strand directs the synthesis of a complementary strand. The replication of DNA is the key to heredity, the passing of traits from parents to offspring. DNA replication results in the formation of new reproductive cells. It also results in the formation of new cells, which is important for the growth of an organism. See Fig. 2. Figure 2. (figure available in print form) Watson-Crick? DNA Replication-Redrawn from version in Levine, Genetics, Holt, Rinehart, Winston, 1968. Chromosomes Genes and chromosomes provide the genetic link between generations. Chromosomes are strands of DNA and protein found in the nucleus of virtually every cell, but with few exceptions seen only during the process of cell division. The number of chromosomes in a cell is characteristic of the species. Some have very few, whereas others may have more than a hundred. Ordinarily, every cell in the body of an organism contains the same number of chromosomes. The most important exception is found in the case of gametes where half the usual number is found. Human beings have 46 chromosomes in each cell, with the exception of the spermatozoa in males and the ova in females, each of which has 23 chromosomes. Human chromosomes occur in pairs, the total 46 consisting of 23 pairs; 22 pairs of autosomes which are non-sex determining chromosomes. The member of a pair are essentially identical, with the exception of sex chromosomes in males, and each pair is different from any other pair. Plants and animals inherit chromosomes from their parents. Each plant and animal cell has a set of chromosomes. Chromosomes, then, control the heredity of an organism. They carry the blueprint that determines what kind of organism will develop. Some Relationship Between Heredity And Environment Organisms can transmit some hereditary conditions to their offspring even if the parents do not show the trait. In the small, familiar fruit fly. Drosophila, there is a hereditary trait in which the wings curl up sharply if the files are raised at a temperature of 25 degrees Celsius. If, however, the files are raised at a lower temperature, such as 16 degrees Celsius then the trait rarely appears. The wings seem to be straight, and the flies look normal. The genetic trait is there, however, and will reappear in the next generation if the temperature returns to 25 degrees Celsius. See fig. 3. A similar type of inheritance appears in plants. In some types of corn the kernels will remain yellow until they are exposed to sunlight. Once exposed, the kernels become various shades of red and purple. Some traits do not appear to be affected by the environment. One of the first hereditary traits studied in humans was polydactyly. An individual with polydactyly has more than ten figures or toes. See fig. 4. This trait does not seem to be affected by the environment at all. Other human traits like color blindness, baldness, blood type, skin color, the ability to taste certain substances, the presence or absence of hairs on the middle of the fingers, and free or attached ear lobes do not seem to be influenced by the environment. (figure available in print form) Figure 3? This diagram shows how temperature affects curly-wing trait in Drosophila. If the third generation of curly-winged flies had been raised in 16? C environment. Source:Redrawn from Biological Science, Houghton, Mifflin Co. , Boston, 1963, p. 379. Figure 4? An example of polydactyly. Extra digits on either hands or feet are almost always abnormal in structure. (figure available in print form) Source: Biological Science, Houghton Mifflin Co. , Boston, 1963. p. 380. A common cited example of an environmental effect on phenotype is the coloring of Siamese Cats, although these cats have a genotype for dark fur, the enzymes that produce the dark coloring function best at temperatures below the normal body temperature of the cat. Siamese Cats are noted for the dark markings on their ears, nose, paws, tail, and all areas that have a low body temperature. If the hair on the cat? s belly is shaved and an ice pack is applied, the replacement hair will be dark. Likewise, a shaved tail, kept at higher than normal temperatures, would soon be covered with light colored fur. These changes are temporary, however, unless the ice pack or heat source is maintained permanently. The most celebrated effect of an environmental agent directly affecting the unborn, is that produced by the rubella virus. This German measles virus is capable of crossing the placenta from mother to child, and the prenatal infection, if it occurs early enough, may result in deafness and other damage to the child. Similarly, maternal infection with the rare protozoan parasite Toxoplasma can cause serious congenital defects in the fetus, and the same has been suspected for Asian influenza. Another environmental factor is anoxia. Anoxia is a natural hazard of childbirth, and in most cases the infant makes a normal adjustment to it. When infants suffer from delayed respiration or asphyxia during birth, it is widely accepted that this is responsible for later difficulties such neurologic abnormalities. Warburton and Fraser have emphasized that the development of a fetus depends on a precise and extremely intricate system of interactions between two sets of hereditary factors and two environments, all acting at the same time on the growing baby. The mother and the fetus each have their own environment and their own genotype. How to cite The Interaction Between Heredity and Environment, Essay examples

Monday, April 27, 2020

Self segregation Essay Example

Self segregation Essay One of the reasons that self segregation exists in our country is from the effect that history has on a culture. There is no culture or country in this world, despite the apathy which many people feel towards history which is not affected by it. America is a very disposable society and when I watch such television programs like the Jay Leno Show where in one piece, he finds people on the street and asks them simple questions as: â€Å"What century did the Civil War take place or who did American fight in WWII?† Their answers which incite laughter within the audience, makes me cringe. Even though I have only been in America for two years, upon arrival, I tried to learn as much as I could about the country; its history, culture and geography. I still have a great deal more to learn but I am confident that I know more about this country than one who is native to its land. The reason for the importance is history in this societal problem is the fact that for four hundred years, America has been segregated. It has only been in the last fifty years, since the Supreme Court decision of Brown vs. Board in 1954 and then the 1964 and 1965 Civil Rights Acts, has segregation been legally outlawed. However, 350 years cannot be erased so quickly. In a Supreme Court Decision of an equal importance, Plessey vs. Ferguson, the majority opinion of the court said that the separation of the races was acceptable. â€Å"â€Å"We consider the underlying fallacy of the plaintiffs argument to consist in the assumption that the enforced separation of the two races stamps the colored race with a badge of inferiority. If this be so, it is not by reason of anything found in the act, but solely because the colored race chooses to put that construction upon it.†(Commanger, 1947. pg. 119) It took more than sixty years for the Supreme Court to say what the rest of the minorities in the country believed: that we were equal to everyone else in this country. We will write a custom essay sample on Self segregation specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now We will write a custom essay sample on Self segregation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer We will write a custom essay sample on Self segregation specifically for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Hire Writer There have been less occurrences of discrimination among Asians in this country because simply, a large population of the Asian community was not allowed into the country. From 1882 and the Chinese Exclusion Act, until the Magnusson Act of 1942, no Chinese immigrants were allowed into the country and the Magnusson Act only allowed a paltry 105 Chinese immigrants into the country as a fulfillment of their quota. It is for the abovementioned reasons, as well as countless other examples, that the majority of the reasons for the self segregation in this country are a representative of what many in America have been conditioned to believe and act. I have a unique perspective because I am not native to this country and have not been conditioned to the same degree that many in America have concerning race. This is not to say that Koreans are above such practices. There was a newspaper report about a football player in the NFL; Heinz Ward who was both Korean and African American. (King, 2007 )   He was completely shunned by the Korean community as being a mixed race individual. The fact is that Korean is more of a homogenized society and such problems which come out of a diverse country as America, is not present to the same degree as in America. Many people would say that America is not as racist as it once was in parts of our nation’s history. Others would say that the racism still exists but that it is hidden more and not out in the open as a result of the societal disrepute which would occur from its exposure. (Blitzer 2007) One thing is for sure, state sponsored racism is not allowed and although it may still exist to a small degree with Affirmative Action and quotas for individuals based upon their race and not their merit, America has come along way in now judging people, As Martin Luther King said: â€Å"not from the color of our skin but from the content of our character.† This is also the ultimate goal of our society, or it should be at least. There are fraternities and sororities on campus which are designed to only cater to the African American or Latino groups. From what I understand, whites and Asians are allowed to join but rarely do. Whose fault is this and does it constitute a fault at all? It is hard to say. From my experiences, a person who voluntarily excludes himself from different races and groups, will more likely possess negative feelings towards that group, either on his own or when confronted with by an individual who is a member of that group. (Bowie, 2007) I have known some of my friends who are white and yet make negative comments about a number of African American friends which I have. These white friends are friendly to me and seem like nice people. I believe that such comments come from ignorance and not from facts about that person’s beliefs. It is because I am neither white, nor black; I fit more easily into both groups because I am an outsider and am not seen to be â€Å"loyal† to one race or another. This gives me a unique perspective into the ways in which both races act. The same is the case for the Hispanic community at school and in town. I will always be on the outside looking in if I desire full inclusion into one race or another. However, that is not my motivation but rather to be myself, take pride in my identity and to see how many quality friends of all races that I can attract. It is only when this happens can racial barriers and stereotypes can be knocked down. BY doing so, one can see that not all white people are racist, not all black people commit crimes and are on welfare, not all Hispanics are here illegally in America and not all Asians are timid and weak. These general beliefs, although can be applied to a number of that particular race, comes from one’s inability to get to known and befriend a member of that other race. One place in which this is less present is in sports. Football teams all across the country, at universities from ocean to ocean, field football teams in which there exists on the roster, more than eighty players of a wide array of different races.   The same can be said, although to a lesser degree, in baseball, soccer, swimming, wrestling and basketball to name a few sports. It is here that racial stereotypes and self segregation is broken down.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã ‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   One semester, I played intramural soccer. I had always loved the game while living in Korea and wanted to continue to play when I came to college. I was not good enough to play on the team but joined an intramural team later that year. There were a few people on the team that I had recognized from classes and from just seeing them on campus. I am even a victim of judging people before all the facts are in and as a result, did not initially feel comfortable with the people on my team. I was here to play soccer, not for a scholarship but to have fun and if I wasn’t going to because the roster was filled with people that I did not like, I was simply going to quit. However, I felt as though I should give the team a chance and since I don’t like to quit, I continued to play. I was very glad that I did because within two weeks, all of my preconceived notions could not have been more erroneous. Our team won a game and it felt as though we had won the World Cup. We ended that season with one of the worst records in the league but there could not have been a team which had more fun than we did. Perhaps that is why we lost so many games! However, I would not have changed it for the world. The progress came when there were members of the team which I had formed an opinion on, based on their race; the exact thing which I had chided America for doing, I was doing as well. There was an African American who I initially avoided because I believed that she was going to be confrontational and abrasive. She ended up being one of my closest friends during the season and I believe that we will remain friends throughout college. There was a white person on the team who initially treated me badly the first day of practice and I thought that it was because I am Korean. I later learned that she was having a bad day, coupled with the fact that her social skills were poor and that she had trouble making friends and responded instead, by pushing others away. We both overcame that and I have dinner at her house at least once a week and even went to stay with her family over Thanksgiving Break. It all goes to show that one of the chief contributing factors to racism is ignorance. A lot o f people are missing out on a lot of good and loyal friends of all races, if they simply go only by the race or gender of a person. However, even though I support the government stepping in and forcing states to desegregate their public facilities, I am not so politically correct as to say that the government should be involved in every aspect of a person’s life in order to prevent racism in their heart. Governments do not have the ability to achieve such things. Coming from Korea as I do, I have seen and my parents have experienced, the effects of an oppressive government in North Korea. Every aspect of their lives that are ruled by their dictator and they live a very sad existence. The depletion of racism in America is a noble goal. However, if an individual feels more comfortable befriending people of his or her own race, there should not be any government in the world that should be able to tell that individual otherwise. If a lunch cafeteria is divided up by racial lines, an effort should be made to integrate the student body. However, as long as the students have a free choice in where they can sit a nd who they want to sit with, the government or anybody else should not be able to force people to sit someplace else. This only acts as reverse racial segregation. And is it has been learned by every parent since the beginning of time, the more a young adult is pressured to do something, the less likely he will do it. Authorities need to encourage racial desegregation in a fun and harmonious way which is creative and fun for the individual. The government needed to step in to stop racial desegregation because the facilities which serviced African Americans, were no where near equal to what was being given to the whites. Also, the government before Brown vs. Board was instructing people where they could go and who they could be seen with in their own time. Reverse racial desegregation, as imposed on an individual by the government, is nearly as counterproductive. The government and churches should encourage racial harmony through the eradication of racial quotas and preferences give n to anyone based on race. There exists in America today, less of a division of race and ethnicity than ever before in this country. ( Blitzer, 2007) However, government enforced, racial segregation has been replaced by self imposed racial segregation. One of the main reasons for this is that people have been conditioned to remain with people of their own race, regardless of how different, even people of one’s own race. The second reason is that there are differences between the races which sometimes result in a funny or amusing stand up comedy routine, but which equates towards the further separation of the races. Sometimes, these differences are so different that two individuals cannot overcome the change. â€Å"Often times, such differences are magnified by the preexisting notions and beliefs that both individuals have about the ways in which they believe, that race should behave.† ( What people sometimes fail to see is that one’s ethnicity is important to them and eve n though they go to a diverse church, have dozens of friends from different races and countries around the world and read authors from a dozen different genres and perspectives, there also comes a time in that person’s life when then wish to reconnect to their roots. Therefore, historically African American schools and fraternities should not be allowed to discriminate against a qualified white, Asian or Hispanic applicant.   His or her entrance into the school should be judged on their test scores and grades more than their race. However, those same schools should not be pressured to allow entrance into their school, in the spirit of diversity, those who do not qualify by the merits of their accomplishments.   Such practices, regardless of what race is involved, is discrimination.

Thursday, March 19, 2020

Alternative Medicine vs. Conventional Medicine Essay Example

Alternative Medicine vs. Conventional Medicine Essay Example Alternative Medicine vs. Conventional Medicine Essay Alternative Medicine vs. Conventional Medicine Essay Introduction It is important to understand the cause of the current crisis on the matter, factors that lead to diseases and good health, in addition to the steps that need to be taken by an individual so as to maintain good health. Traditional medicine, also known as conventional medicine, relies on scientific principles, contemporary technologies as well as scientifically proved methodologies for purposes of preventing, diagnosing, and treating adverse medical conditions (Treweek Heller, 2006). Health care professionals within conventional medicine believe that diseases are caused by pathogenic microorganisms such as viruses and bacteria. In conventional medicine, health care professionals must undergo extensive training and meet the standards set by the American Medical Association. By contrast, alternative medicine in its medical approach takes in to account the body and mind, experience and knowledge for diagnosis and treatment. The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine at the national Institutes of health did a survey in May of 2004 and found that 36 percent of adults in America use some form of alternative medicine(Arias, 2004). They argue that conventional methods of treatment focus on diagnostic testing as well as treating with medications, but not on the patient as a whole. So as to gain an understanding on the increasing medical shift towards alternative treatment, it is important to understand what alternative medicine and conventional medicine are. Alternative medicine vs. conventional medicine Alternative medicine employs natural treatment modalities in treatment of diseases. Various alternative treatment approaches including massage, water treatment and herbal remedies were used, and still are used today by the Chinese communities to manage a variety of diseases. Modern alternative treatment techniques are developed based on the ancient treatments (Paquette, 2000). Modern alternative treatment techniques include: acupuncture, homeopathy, spiritual devotions, chiropractic, aromatherapy, psychotherapy, osteopathy, naturopathic, nutrition medicine, in addition to a wide range of other natural remedies (Alters and Schiff, 2010). These therapies have proved to be of much benefit in supporting the normal healing course of the body. Even though there are many modern alternative remedies, with different beliefs, all of them operate under some common principles. One of these principles is that the body has the capacity to heal naturally and maintain stability (Paquette, 2000). The other one is that adverse health conditions can occur as a result of factors emanating from mind, emotions and the body. Alternative medicine, according to Goldberg, Trivieri and Anderson, (2002), focuses on determining the chief cause of a particular condition, and dealing with the whole person rather that concentrating on symptoms. If a person pays close attention to his/her health he/she can contribute to his/her wellbeing. Alternative medicine holds firmly to the principle that one treatment cannot be used for all people even though they may be suffering from the same condition. Each and every person as per alternative medicine has distinct bodily, mind and spiritual make up (Goldberg, Trivieri and Anderson, 2002). Health care professionals within conventional medicine believe that diseases are caused by microorganisms such as bacteria and viruses. Medical care professionals in conventional medicine must meet the national set standards concerning education and certification. These professionals constantly update their knowledge through educational programs so as to maintain their professional licenses. Alters and Schiff (2010), asserts that, before any treatment procedure is put into use in conventional medicine, health care professionals in this field must verify that it does not subject human beings to adverse medical side-effects. Numerous studies are conducted using animal and human subjects to determine the effectiveness of a certain treatments. Conventional medicine is recommended when a patient is suffering from a life threatening condition. It focuses on the symptoms which a patient is presenting with. Generally, conventional medicine focuses on dysfunction. Those who prefer conventional medicine to alternative medicine, seek treatment only after they have fallen ill. This is due to the fact that conventional treatment puts very little emphasis on the prevention as compared to treatment (Treweek and Heller, 2006). The major difference between conventional and alternative medicine is that conventional medicine concerns itself with the management of symptoms through scientific modalities and modern technology rather than dealing with the whole person as well as the root cause of an illness. Alternative medicine emphasizes on the prevention of illnesses and aims at treating the whole person in order to strengthen his/her immune system as well as producing a sustainable healing. Conventional medicine uses drugs to treat various illnesses thereby suppressing the body’s natural immunity; alternative medicine employs strategies that assist the body to heal naturally (Goldberg, Trivieri and Anderson, 2002). Conclusion The issue relating to the differences between alternative and conventional medicine can be very highly controversial. Alternative medicine has been employed as treatment in the world for thousands of years. It involves the use of natural treatment techniques in management and prevention of diseases. Alternative treatment techniques including acupuncture, homeopathy, spiritual devotions, chiropractic, aromatherapy, psychotherapy, osteopathy, naturopathic and nutrition medicine among many others are developed based on the ancient treatment techniques. Conventional medicine involves the use of drugs, surgery, and other medical procedures in dealing with various medical conditions. Conventional medicine employs scientific principles, scientifically tested medical procedures as well as modern technologies to diagnose, manage and prevent diseases. Conventional medicine focuses on treatment of various symptoms; alternative medicine concentrates on prevention, determination of the root cause as well as treatment of the whole person. Reference: About 70 percent of older adults use alternative medicine. (2005, April 11). Ascribe Newswire, pp 1-3, 3p. Retrieved July 5, 2010, from Ascribe Newswire database. Alternative Medicine Angel, Alternative Medicine: A Comparison, retrieved on July 2, 2010 from http://altmedangel. com/am. html Alters, S. , Schiff W. , (edn 5), (2010), Essential Concepts for Healthy Living, ISBN 0763789755: Jones Bartlett Learning Arais, D. , (2004, August). Alternative medicines prompts concern. , The Nations Health, 34(6), 6-6. Retrived July 5, 2010, from ephost database. Field, T. , (2009), Traditional Medicine vs. Alternative Medicine, retrieved on July 2, 2010 from asktheinternettherapist. com/archive_traditional_medicine. asp Goldberg, B. , Trivieri, L. , and Anderson, J. , (edn 2), (2002), Alternative medicine: the definitive guide, ISBN 1587611414: Celestial Arts Meines, M. , (1998), Should Alternative Treatment be Integrated into Mainstream Medicine? Nursing Forum, Vol 33 Paquette, M. , (2000), Does Your Assessment Include Alternative Therapies? Perspectives in Psychiatric Care, Vol 36 Treweek, G. , and Heller, T. , (2006), Perspectives on Complementary and Alternative Medicine, ISBN 0415351618: Routledge.

Tuesday, March 3, 2020

Social Dialect Definition and Examples

Social Dialect Definition and Examples In sociolinguistics, social dialect is a variety of speech associated with a particular social class or occupational group within a society. Also known as a sociolect,  group idiolect, and class dialect. Douglas Biber distinguishes two main kinds of dialects in linguistics: Geographic dialects are varieties associated with speakers living in a particular location, while social dialects are varieties associated with speakers belonging to a given demographic group (e.g., women versus men, or different social classes)(Dimensions of Register Variation, 1995). Examples and Observations Even though we use the term social dialect or sociolect as a label for the alignment of a set of language structures with the social position of a group in a status hierarchy, the social demarcation of language does not exist in a vacuum. Speakers are simultaneously affiliated with a number of different groups that include region, age, gender, and ethnicity, and some of these other factors may weigh heavily in the determination of the social stratification of language variation. For example, among older European-American speakers in Charleston, South Carolina, the absence of r in words such as bear and court is associated with aristocratic, high-status groups (McDavid 1948) whereas in New York City the same pattern of r-lessness is associated with working-class, low-status groups (Labov 1966). Such opposite social interpretations of the same linguistic trait over time and space point to the arbitrariness of the linguistic symbols that carry social meaning. In other words, it is not r eally the meaning of what you say that counts socially, but who you are when you say it. (Walt Wolfram, Social Varieties of American English. Language in the USA, ed. by E. Finegan. Cambridge University Press, 2004) Language and Gender Across all social groups in Western societies, women generally use more standard grammatical forms than men and so, correspondingly, men use more vernacular forms than women... [I]t is worth noting that although gender generally interacts with other social factors, such as status, class, the role of the speaker in an interaction, and the (in)formality of the context, there are cases where the gender of the speaker seems to be the most influential factor accounting for speech patterns. In some communities, a womans social status and her gender interact to reinforce differential speech patterns between women and men. In others, different factors modify one another to produce more complex patterns. But in a number of communities, for some linguistic forms, gender identity seems to be a primary factor accounting for speech variation. The gender of the speaker can override social class differences, for instance, in accounting for speech patterns. In these communities, expressing masculine or feminine identity seems to be very important. (Janet Holmes, An Introduction to Sociolinguistics, 4th ed. Routledge, 2013) Standard British English as a Sociolect The standard variety of a given language, e.g. British English, tends to be the upper-class sociolect of a given central area or regiolect. Thus Standard British English used to be the English of the upper classes (also called the Queens English or Public School English) of the Southern, more particularly, London area. (Renà © Dirven and Marjolyn Verspoor, Cognitive Exploration of Language and Linguistics. John Benjamins, 2004) LOL-Speak When two friends created the site I Can Has Cheezburger?  in 2007, to share cat photos with funny, misspelled captions, it was a way of cheering themselves up. They probably weren’t thinking about long-term sociolinguistic implications. But seven years later, the cheezpeep community is still active online, chattering away in LOLspeak, its own distinctive variety of English. LOLspeak was meant to sound like the twisted language inside a cat’s brain, and has ended up resembling a down-South baby talk with some very strange characteristics, including deliberate misspellings (teh, ennyfing), unique verb forms (gotted, can haz), and word reduplication (fastfastfast). It can be difficult to master. One user writes that it used to take at least 10 minutes â€Å"to read adn unnerstand† a paragraph. (â€Å"Nao, it’z almost like a sekund lanjuaje.†) To a linguist, all of this sounds a lot like a sociolect: a language variety that’s spoken within a social group, like Valley Girl–influenced ValTalk or African American Vernacular English. (The word dialect, by contrast, commonly refers to a variety spoken by a geographic group- think Appalachian or Lumbee.) Over the past 20 years, online sociolects have been springing up around the world, from Jejenese in the Philippines to Ali G Language, a British lingo inspired by the Sacha Baron Cohen character. (Britt Peterson, The Linguistics of LOL. The Atlantic, October 2014) Slang as a Social Dialect If your kids are unable to differentiate among a nerd (social outcast), a dork (clumsy oaf) and a geek (a real slimeball), you might want to establish your expertise by trying these more recent (and in the process of being replaced) examples of kiduage: thicko (nice play on sicko), knob, spasmo (playground life is cruel), burgerbrain and dappo. Professor Danesi, who is author of Cool: The Signs and Meanings of Adolescence, treats kids slang as a social dialect that he calls pubilect. He reports that one 13-year-old informed him about a particular kind of geek known specifically as a leem in her school who was to be viewed as particularly odious. He was someone who just wastes oxygen. (William Safire, On Language: Kiduage. The New York Times Magazine, Oct. 8, 1995)

Saturday, February 15, 2020

Nursing Theory, Research, and Evidence-Based Practice Essay

Nursing Theory, Research, and Evidence-Based Practice - Essay Example continue maintaining the status quo of nursing as being predicated on medicine and its paternalistic medical model, derived from the Hippocratic Oath. This paper studies the key aspect of evidence based nursing and identifies that it is the relationship of nursing with temperamental nursing which is highly related to dealing with children and parents of ill youngsters. From the students point of view, the discrepancy between nursing as a practical profession and nursing as an academic discipline may enhance the theory-practice gap and aggravate tensions. Traditionally, evidence of fall related patients has been checkup by nurses using the Tinetti Assessment Tool which is considered to be a simple, easily administered test that measures a patient’s walk and equilibrium. The test is scored on the patient’s capability to perform specific tasks. The discipline of nursing and the subjects in nursing programs have been categorized in terms of a science-based model, e.g. biological and physical sciences, behavioral and social sciences, humanities, medical science and, finally, nursing science (Beattie, 2003). As long as nursing was based on a medical model and medical staff was involved in teaching the students, the subjects of the curriculum were congruent with the medical model (Wynne et al, 2004). The key aspect of evidence based nursing is the relationship of nursing with fall management nursing. This aspect of nursing is highly related to dealing with pain related issues for fall patients consisting of children and parents of ill youngsters. While evidence based intervention is intended to relay acceptance to the patient, the strategies that patients and other caregivers use often encourage the fall patient to accept a challenge that can foster their recovery. In order to have medical knowledge, e.g. an understanding of pathos-physiological implications, one needs to be familiar with the biosciences. Akinsanya (Akinsanya, 2005, Akinsanya, 2003) suggests that